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  • What is 5G (5th generation mobile network)

    The fifth generation mobile communication technology (English: 5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems, 5th-generation, 5G or 5G technology) is the latest generation of cellular mobile communication technology, namely 4G (LTE-A, WiMax), 3G ( Extensions after UMTS, LTE) and 2G (GSM) systems. 5G's performance goals are high data rates, reduced latency, energy savings, reduced costs, increased system capacity and large-scale device connectivity. The first phase of the 5G specification in Release-15 was designed to accommodate early commercial deployments. The second phase of Release-16 will be completed in April 2020 and will be submitted to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as a candidate for IMT-2020 technology [1]. The ITU IMT-2020 specification requires speeds of up to 20 Gbit/s for wide channel bandwidth and high capacity MIMO.Development BackgroundIn recent years, the fifth generation mobile communication system 5G has become a hot topic in the communication industry and academia. There are two main drivers for the development of 5G. On the one hand, 4G, a fourth-generation mobile communication system represented by long-term evolution technology, has been fully commercialized, and the discussion of next-generation technologies has been put on the agenda. On the other hand, the demand for mobile data has exploded, and existing mobile communication systems are difficult to meet the future. Demand, urgent need to develop a new generation of 5G systems.The development of 5G also comes from the growing demand for mobile data. With the development of mobile Internet, more and more devices are connected to mobile networks, and new services and applications are emerging. Global mobile broadband users are expected to reach 9 billion in 2018. By 2020, the capacity of mobile communication networks is expected. The current network capacity has increased by 1000 times. The skyrocketing mobile data traffic will pose serious challenges to the network. First, according to the current development of mobile communication networks, it is difficult to support the growth of thousands of times of traffic, and network energy consumption and bit cost are unbearable. Secondly, traffic growth will inevitably lead to further demand for spectrum, while mobile communication spectrum is scarce, and available spectrum is presented. Large-span, fragmented distribution makes it difficult to achieve efficient use of spectrum; in addition, to improve network capacity, it is necessary to intelligently and efficiently utilize network resources, such as intelligent optimization for business and user personality, but this is not enough; finally, the future network It must be a heterogeneous mobile network with multiple networks coexisting. To improve network capacity, it is necessary to solve the problem of efficiently managing each network, simplifying interoperability, and enhancing user experience. In order to solve the above challenges and meet the growing demand for mobile traffic, there is an urgent need to develop a new generation of 5G mobile communication networks.Basic Concepts5G mobile networks Like the early 2G, 3G and 4G mobile networks, 5G networks are digital cellular networks in which the service area covered by the provider is divided into a number of small geographic areas called cells. The analog signals representing the sound and image are digitized in the handset, converted by the analog to digital converter and transmitted as a bit stream. All 5G wireless devices in the cell communicate with local antenna arrays and low power automatic transceivers (transmitters and receivers) in the cell via radio waves. The transceiver allocates channels from a common frequency pool that can be reused in geographically separated cells. The local antenna is connected to the telephone network and the Internet via a high bandwidth fiber or wireless backhaul connection. As with existing handsets, when a user traverses from one cell to another, their mobile device will automatically "switch" to the antenna in the new cell.The main advantage of 5G networks is that the data transmission rate is much higher than the previous cellular network, up to 10Gbit/s, which is faster than the current wired Internet and 100 times faster than the previous 4G LTE cellular network. Another advantage is lower network latency (faster response time), less than 1 millisecond, and 4G is 30-70 milliseconds. Due to faster data transmission, 5G networks will not only serve mobile phones, but will also become a general home and office network provider, competing with cable network providers. Previous cellular networks provided low data rate Internet access for mobile phones, but a cell phone tower could not economically provide enough bandwidth as a general Internet provider for home computers.

  • Are EVs holding back stationary energy storage systems?

    After several years in the automotive sector we saw many times that once a new technology is introduced in vehicles the automotive business "machine" gets in place and new technologies get cheaper and better much faster. it is very clear that electric vehicles had a significant impact in the acceleration of the stationary storage (and in making renewable energy generation more efficient). It has been a major push, even without adding the value of vehicle to grid and the circular economy mindset change from the repurposing of 2nd life batteries. The first lithium batteries in 2010 were a spark for the sector. Because of the market dynamics brought by the automotive manufacturers, lithium battery cost has been reduced by a factor of five and the energy density at pack level multiplied by three. Once you combine the direct and indirect impact during the last decade, electric vehicles have already started to significantly change the way we think about sustainability in mobility and energy. 

  • Strengths and Limitations of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Strengths and Limitations of Lithium-Ion BatteriesAdvantages:a. Higher energy density, ability for still greater capacities. b. Relatively low self-discharge, self-discharge is less than half that of Nickel cadmium and NiMH. c. Minimal Upkeep, no occaisional discharge is needed; no memory. Limitations:a. Needs protection circuit, protection circuit restricts voltage and current. Battery is safe if not provoked. b. Subject to aging, even if not in use, locating the battery in a cool area and at 40 percent state-of-charge minimises the aging effect. c. Medium discharge current.  d. Subject to transportation laws, shipment of more substantial amounts of Li-ion batteries may also be subject to regulatory control. This restriction does not apply to personal carry-on batteries. e. Expensive to manufacture, about 40 percent higher in cost than Nickel cadmium. Better engineering techniques and replacement of scarce metals with lessened cost choices will most likely lower the price tag. f. Not fully developed, alterations in metal and chemical combinations have an effect on battery assessment outcomes, especially with some rapid assessment methods.

  • Tesla has discovered a new lithium ion battery technology

    Tesla has discovered a new lithium-ion battery technology that has a higher energy density than solid-state batteriesTesla's battery research team and its partners have discovered a new lithium-ion battery technology with a higher energy density and more stability than solid-state batteries, which may change the course of the next phase of the development of power lithium-ion battery technology, foreign media reported. Previously, many battery research institutions have regarded solid-state batteries as the first choice for the next stage, and energy density is also the most important technical parameter for dynamic lithium batteriesThe full name of the technical report is: lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lithium metal battery research report without anode. The information at the heart of this suggests that many previous studies have been pessimistic about the next phase of lithium-metal batteries, arguing that the traditional liquid electrolyte used in batteries must be replaced by a solid electrolyte to maintain the lifetime and high energy density required for long-term stable circulation. However, in the latest experiments, it was found that the lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyteThe report also addresses the problem of replacing conventional graphite anodes with lithium metal rather than solid electrolytes. Another potential approach to lithium metal anodes is the use of solid electrolytes, which many studies consider to be the most viable technology for the future, according to the report. However, solid electrolytes cannot achieve stable dendrilless state (stability) after multiple charge and discharge, and there are also problems in large-scale production, which often requires billions of dollars of investment in the production line. If the traditional liquid electrolyte method of lidfob/libf4 liquid electrolyte is adopted, the existing manufacturing equipment can quickly commercialize and mass produce this new high energy density battery while meeting the requirements of safety, density and life

  • Cordless Tools Powered by Lithium Ion battery pack

    Lithium-ion technology is continuing to redefine the cordless power tool industry. As tool manufacturers continue to search for that “Holy Grail” of the perfect power tool, advances in battery technology keep changing the game.Lithium-ion battery technology is considered to be one of the biggest innovations in nearly 20 years. Its use in cell phones and laptops has driven weights down and run-times ever higher.For cordless tools, the NiCad technology has been entrenched for years. The 18-volt NiCad continues to be the best balance between performance, weight and price. However, the improved features of lithium-ion is replacing its NiCad counterpart.Lithium-ion battery offers one of the best energy-to-weight ratios and a slower loss of battery charge when not in use. As professionals continue to demand more powerful, efficient and comfortable tools to work their trade, lithium-ion seems to fit the bill.

  • Features of lithium ion battery pack

     Extremely safe and stable chemistry: PCB and/or BMS built inside to balance protect the battery.        Long life-cycle: Can be circularly used, best can up to 2000 times recycles, 8 times of Lead acid battery.        Lighter weight, with the best power-to-weight ratio: 1/3 of Lead acid battery weight.       Good performance at high temperature and low temperature resistance       Low self-discharge rate, less than 3% monthly.       No memory effects and highly efficient charge.       Environment friendly: Clean and Green energy poses no pollution on our environment.

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